A Tribute to Womanhood

Welcome to "I Am Woman"...a tribute to all those women who had the courage and perseverance to stand up and fight for their rights. Thanks to those who came before us we enjoy a freedom unknown to women not too long ago. But, sadly, in many parts of the world, women continue to be repressed. In fact, even in this country there are women living today under the threat of violence...completely controlled by a violent spouse. Some may make it; others won't. Hopefully, one day ALL women will be free. May that day come soon.


This Should Get Your Dander Up

“Instructing a woman is like holding a sack of sand whose sides have split open.”
- Ankhsheshong, scribe. Late Period Ancient Egypt

“Neither wives of lords, nor widows, nor Assyrian women who go out on the street, may have their heads uncovered.....when they go out on the street alone, they must veil themselves.”
- Middle Assyrian Law, 1383-1000 B.C.E.

“A proper wife should be as obedient as a slave...The female is a female by virtue of a certain lack of qualities - a natural defectiveness.”
- Aristotle

“A woman...cultivates the skills required in the women’s quarters and has no ambition to manage affairs outside the house...She must follow the ‘three submissions.’ When she is young, she must submit to her parents. After her marriage, she must submit to her husband. When she is widowed, she must submit to her son.”
- “The Mother of Mencius,” Waring States, 475-221 B.C.E, China

“Women, even though they are of full age, because of their levity of mind shall be under guardianship.”
- The Twelve Tables, Rome, 450 B.C.E.

“You must be like the heart in the body. You must not leave the home...You must be like embers in the hearth.”
- Advice given Aztec girls at ceremonies honoring their birth.

“Women are as different from men as earth from the heaven. She depends on the light of her husband to shine.” and “Woman’s virginity and chastity are more important than her life.”
- Neo-Confucian Sayings, China.

“If you have a son, you can say you have a descendant. But you cannot say thus, even if you have ten daughters.”
- Vietnamese proverb

“Even though you sleep intimately on the same bed and under the same cover with him, you must treat your husband as if he were your king.”
- Upper Class Confucian marriage manual, Vietnam

“There are only two places for a woman, the house and the grave”
- Pakistani proverb

“Women have long hair and a short mind.”
- Swedish proverb

“The best way to keep a woman is barefoot in the winter and pregnant in the summer”
- American proverb


Mary Kenney O'Sullivan

Mary Kenney O'Sullivan was an American social activist and labor leader.  She was famous for her work in Boston where she organized women into various unions to fight against the exploitation of women and children in factory labor.She was born Mary Kenney in Hannibal, Missouri, on January 8, 1864, the only child of an Irish immigrant couple. 

After a brief formal education, at the age of 14 she began working as a bookbinder to help support her invalid mother, and by the age of 19, she had mastered all there was to know about the trade and was even promoted to forewoman, but even though she was working in the same position of her male counterparts, she could never earn as much as a man.  She was also frustrated by working in the same position as her male counterparts, she could however never earn as much as a man. She was also frustrated by the harsh working conditions that the women were exposed to. That early experience of injustice and gender inequality played an important role in her decision to become a social activist to bring about change.

In 1889, she and her mother moved to Chicago where she worked in several different factories and eventually became a trade union organizer.  Eventually she found her way to Hull House where she met Jane Adams. It was agreed that Kenney and fellow trade unionists could hold their meetings at the settlement house.

In 1891, Mary established the Jane Club, a co-operative house where girls with low wages could live together. There were six apartments in the house. Within a year they were all occupied with each person paying $3.00 for rent, food and services. Mary gave weekly lectures at the house, educating the women on the need for social reform. 

Mary Kenney became a well-known trade union figure and in 1892 Samuel Gompers, the president of the American Federation of Labor, appointed her as his first woman organizer, and the following year,  Then, in the mid-1890's, Mary  moved to Boston where she married John O'Sullivan, a journalist working for the Boston Globe. At the time, she was employed by the Women's Educational and Industrial Union and helped to organize garment, rubber makers, shoemakers,  and laundry workers.

In 1902, Mary's husband died, and and she was left alone to raise her three children. She continued to work for the American Federation of Labor.  In 1903, a year after being left a widow with three children to raise, she joined a New York settlement worker to found the National Women’s Trade Union League. As a leader of the WTUL during its formative years, O’Sullivan brought together affluent women, professionals,and women workers to promote protective legislation, such as the minimum wage, and trade unionism among women. She was a leader in Massachusetts reform circles, focusing her efforts on woman suffrage, housing for the poor, prohibition, pacifism, and — the cause with
which she is most closely identified — legislation to protect women and children in the in the workplace.

In November, 1914, Kenney was appointed as a factory inspector by the Department of Labor, a post she was to hold for twenty years. Mary Kenney O'Sullivan died in West Medford on 18th January, 1943. She is buried at St. Joseph Cemetery in West Roxbury, Massachusetts.

Mary Kenney O'Sullivan spent her whole life advocating Women's Suffrage, housing for the poor and underprivileged, and pacifism. Her highest priority was however organizing women into labor unions and the fight against gender inequality on the workplace. Through her effort Illinois and later Massachusetts passed legislature that enhanced working conditions for women. With her work she influenced numerous women who later made pass state and federal laws that advanced position of working women.

Mary Kenney O'Sullivan is one of six Massachusetts women whose bronze bust is housed in the Massachusetts State House.


Historical Day for Afghanistan Women

Much like the United States in the mid-twentieth century, Afghanistan is now experiencing major changes in the rights that are afforded to women. For example, not only can women in now hold jobs which were previously unavailable to them, but today Afghanistan saw the first class of women officers in decades graduate from a class of new recruits in the Afghanistan National Army (ANA). In total, 28 women graduated from the Nato Training Mission states the ANA Female Officers Candidate School, which opened in April, was a joint effort between NATO and the Afghan Ministry of Defense. In total, 29 women graduated and can now serve in a position of authority as an officer in the Afghan National Army.

This is quite an accomplishment for among the requirements for admission into the program are completion of high school, literacy, and satisfactory achievement on a series of tests...and, currently, approximately seventy percent of the Afghan population can neither read nor write.

This class of women officers will not be sent to the front lines in the current war in Afghanistan, which is raging at its strongest since the start of the insurgency in 2001, but will instead largely be doing administrative work as finance and logistics officers. The women hope to help take a lead role in helping move national security foreign forces to national forces by 2014.

Congratulations to these brave women who are paving the way for those that are to follow them.  Hats off to ya, ladies. 



In the eleventh century, Salerno, Italy was the epicenter of medieval medicine in Europe. Salerno was famous for having one of the world's first universities with a medical school and, while women were generally denied an education during this time, its faculty and student body included both men and women. In fact, during this time, many women were trained as physicians and also taught at the medical schools. It's faculty and student body included both men and women.Trotula was a physician and an instructor at the School of Salerno.

Trotula, sometimes called Trota, was born in the eleventh century, perhaps around 1097 AD; sadly, very little is known of her life.  The medical heroes of the day were still Hippocrates and Galen, even though both had died over eight hundred years before. Doctors followed and taught the teachings of these physicians, and virtually never researched on their own. 

Trotula was one of the most famous physicians of the time and her interest was  in managing the diseases and health problems of women. She is considered the world's first gynecologist. A skilled diagnostician, she  wrote on a wide variety of topics, including conception, menstruation, pregnancy, cesarean sections and childbirth..  Her work on gynecology was so practical that it was used for hundreds of years. In the fables and stories of Northern Europe she became the fictional character called "Dame Trot."

Tortula  believed that women should not suffer unrelenting pain during childbirth. During childbirth, she advocated the use of opiates produced by plants to dull the pain of labor. This contradicted Christian beliefs that a woman should suffer the pain of childbirth, because of the sin of Eve. Women were seen as weak, inferior and more susceptible to disease. For this reason, Trotula believed that women have special medical needs that can only be investigated and treated by a woman. She also felt that her patients should be physically comfortable, she recommended warm herbal baths, special diets, and plenty of rest to speed the healing process.

Sadly, the opportunities  allowed to women at Salerno in the 11th century were not to last for  Salerno was sacked by Henry VI in 1194, and, unfortunately, the medical school never fully recovered its prestige. Women were once again denied access to education, and those with practical healing skills and herbal knowledge were persecuted as witches. In fact, Tortola's own books were scattered and lost as hostility towards women as teachers and healers led to her very existence being denied and her works being assigned to male authors!


Hats Off to the Ladies

Woman must not accept; she must challenge. She must not be awed by that which has been built up around her; she must reverence that woman in her which struggles for expression.--Margaret Sanger --

It has recently been reported that, for the first time ever, women have earned the majority of PhD's awarded at American Universities during the 2008-2009 academic year.In fact, the number of women at every level of academia has been increasing for decades; however, according to the Washington Post, doctoral level study was the only remaining area of higher education that still had a male majority.

According to an annual enrollment report from the Council of Graduate Schools, 28,962 of the doctoral degrees awarded last year went to women and 28,469 to men. Although women have long outnumbered men in earning master's degrees, because of the average length required to attain a doctoral degree - typically seven years the PhD was the last area to show the impact of any long-term changes in education enrollment trends.

We never know how high we are
Till we are called to rise;
And then, if we are true to plan,
Our statures touch the skies.
~ Emily Dickinson ~


How to Deal With a Stalker

Unfortunately, many of us will have to deal with a stalker in some way or another at some point in their lives.  It may be an ex-spouse or lover...or, it may be the new lover or spouse of your ex.  It may be someone you work with or someone you say 'hello' to at the supermarket. It is someone who just wants to be with you and thinks you will you will want to be with them to, if you only give them a chance.  At best, it is a very frightening experience; at its worst, it can be dangerous and deadly.

How you deal with your stalker depends on several factors: Who are they?;  Why are they are stalking you?; and how dangerous do you think they might be?  How they are stalking you is also important.  For example, a cyberstalker who follows you online can be fairly easily dealth with by blocking him from most website;  Phone numbers can be changed and blocked. For physical stalker, it may call for involving the police

Your first step is to identify who your stalker is.  In most cases, it will probably be someone who you know.  If it is an ex-lover or spouse, they are either stalking you because they want you back or because they want revenge.  Either way, they feel like you have done them wrong and believe their actions are justified.   If happens to be their new lover or spouse that's doing the stalking, it is likely that they are jealous of you and are afraid you will come between them.   Either way, it has the potential to become very dangerous.

If you find there can be no reasoning with the person, then you must cut off all contact. If possible, move. If not, take any measures necessary to secure your home. Change your locks, and install deadbolts if you do not already have them. Secure glass sliders with sawn-off broomsticks cut to fit the tracks. Be careful not to give your phone number or any other personal information to them, and make sure that any mutual friends do not give them this information. Practice an escape plan. Talk to trusted neighbors about procedures if any of you see a prowler.Consider getting a guard dog.

Now, when there are children between you, it becomes a more difficult situation as they may decide to use the children as an excuse for stalking. If you are in a custody battle, let the court system know what is going on.  Sometimes you wind up with a choice between visitation and privacy.  In this case, the visitation comes at a high price because when your privacy is compromised, they come up with more reasons to take you back to court.  If you don't know your stalker, you can call the police if they try to contact you.

Get a restraining order. Although this may upset your stalker, it will also make clear to him that hassling you is a crime. If the stalker violates the order, call the police immediately...no matter what the circumstances. If the stalker continues to harass you, make sure you keep a record of each incident, and tell everyone.  You have done nothing to be ashamed of so don't be afraid to let your friends help you.  Depending on the atmosphere at work, you may or may not want to share this information with your boss.

Join a support group. Victim advocates in district attorney’s offices can help you find one. Remember, there is strength in numbers. 


Why They Stalk

Please take time to read this section.  It is extremely important to be aware of the following traits of stalkers. These will alert you to the possibility that a potential suitor or even a friend or acquaintance could become a stalker.
Stalkers refuse to take no for an answer. They cannot or will not believe that the victim is not interested in them or has no desire to rekindle their relationship. In fact, they often believe that their victim really does love them, but just doesn't know it; hence, the victim needs to be pushed into realizing it. As long as they continue pursuing their victim, the stalker can convince themselves they haven't been completely rejected yet.

Stalkers have an obsessive personality.  The become so totally obsessed the the person they are pursuing, that their every waking thought centers on the victim.  Every plan the stalker has for the future involves the victim.  And, along with their obsessive thinking, they also display other psychological problems or personality disorders.  They may suffer from paranoia, schizophrenia, and other types of delusional thinking, and although there are drugs out there to treat certain specific mental disorders, the stalkers, when given the choice, rarely comply with their medication or treatment.

Most stalkers are above average in intelligence; hence, they are usually much smart than your usual person with mental problems. Thus, they are able to go to great lengths to obtain information about their victim or to find a victim who has secretly moved.  (In my case, my ex found me through a real estate friend of his.  He manipulated the man into believing that he had some important news for me from my family).  They have been known to hack into computers, to tap telephone lines, and even go so far as to take jobs at public utilities that allow them access to the victims...and because of their intelligence, they are able to throw others off their trail.   

Stalkers do not display the norm discomfort or anxiety that most people feel when they find themselves in certain situations.  For example, normal folk would be quite embarrassed if they were discovered following other people, going through their trash, or any other inappropriate behaviors that they display. but to stalkers, they are not being inappropriate at all.  This is only a means of gaining the other person's love. 

This is a big one.  Most stalkers don't have any relationships outside of the one they imagine exists between themselves and their victim...and it is because they are such loners, that they become so desperate to obtain this relationship.
Stalkers suffer from very low self-esteem and feel that they 'must' have a relationship with their victim in order to have any self worth.  

And finally, few stalkers can see how their actions are hurting others.  Most do not think they are threatening or intimidating; they actually believe that they are simply trying to show the victim that they are the right one for them.  Like sociopaths, society's rules do not pertain to them because in their eyes, they are not doing anything wrong.  They do not regard what they are doing as a crime.  To them, it is true love; the only exception is that the victim doesn't know it yet.
Stalkers can become dangerous and violent when frustrated...and often deadly, and although most of the cases do not end in murder or bodily injury, enough do each year, so victims should never brush aside that possibility.  This is not a crime to be taken lightly...no matter who the stalker is.

Do you know anyone like this?.....
  • Refuses to take no for an answer
  • Has an obsessive personality type
  • Has above average intelligence
  • No or very few personal relationships
  • Suffers no embarrassment or discomfort at actions
  • Low self esteem
  • Has a noticeable mean streak
  • Sociopathic personality



Stalking is defined as "the willful, malicious and repeated following and harassing of another person", and it is estimated that one out of every 12 women has been stalked at some time in her life.  In most cases, the purpose of stalking is to  force a relationship with an unwilling or unavailable target.  It is a crime of power and control.

The National Center for Victims of Crime defines stalking as "virtually any unwanted contact between two people that directly or indirectly communicates a threat or places the victim in fear..." Examples may include:
  • following a person
  • appearing at a person's home or place of business
  • making harassing phone calls
  • leaving written messages or objects
  • vandalizing a person's property or breaking into the victim's home or car
  • sending seemingly romantic gifts such as flowers
  • gathering information on the victim such as contacting people who know the victim or gathering public records
  • threats of violence intended to frighten the victim 
  • cyberstalking such as installing spyware on the victim's computer
It is estimated that the majority of stalking victims are between 18 and 39 years old, and the most common type of stalking is by a person in a former personal or romantic relationship, like an ex-husband — only a small number of women are stalked by strangers.

Stalking can be very traumatic and cause emotional stress. When I broke up with my ex, he made threats and promised that he would hunt me down wherever I went. It's a terrifying feeling to always be looking over your shoulder, running away every time you see a car or a person that resembles him. Hence, it is not beyond reason that victims of stalking may have nightmares, feel out of control, have trouble sleeping, eating, and concentrating, or feel vulnerable or depressed. Stalking can also cause financial stress if the victim loses time from work or can't go to work. 

I had to give up my job, my home, live on welfare...and it took several years before I felt safe enough to live a normal life again, but not for long because one day I came home from work to find a greeting card from him slipped through the slot in my door; it hadn't been sent through the mails.  He had been at my home.  I felt violated, frightened; I began to cry.  Of course, I had to move and start over again...another job, another borough. He never did find me again, but I never truly felt safe, not until I heard that he had passed away.  


Amelia Earhart Statue to be Added to Capital

 "One of my favorite phobias is that girls, especially those whose tastes aren't routine, often don't get a fair break... It has come down through the generations, an inheritance of age-old customs which produced the corollary that women are bred to timidity."--Amelia Earhart

She disappeared forever, seemingly, after a transmission on July 2, 1937. But Amelia Earhart is back.
  It’s official now: Plans to add a statue of groundbreaking aviator, Amelia Earhart, to replace the statue of John James Ingalls in the U.S. Capitol became public this week. Earhart will become only the 10th woman to be featured in Statuary Hall, where each state is allotted space for two of its citizens to be honored. 

She was born on July 24, 1897 in Kansas, at her grandparent's home in Atchison, Kansas, the daughter of Edwin and Amy Earhart She and her sister lived with their wealthy grandparents in Atchison and attended a private school until 1908 when the family moved to Des Moines. When Amelia was 11 years old, she went with her dad to the state fair, and it was there that she saw her first airplane. While a teenager during WWI, she served as a volunteer nurse. After the war, Amelia enrolled as a pre-med student at Columbia University, and although she was doing well in school, she moved back to California to be with her parents. One day she accompanied her father to an "aerial meet" and went on a 10 minute flight over Los Angeles. That was the moment that she knew flying was what she wanted to do. For her twenty-fifth birthday on July 24, 1922, she finally had enough money saved and began her flying lessons.

Then in 1928, Earhart received an invitation to become the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean and even though she was not to be flying the plane herself, she accepted. On June 3, 1928, they from Trepassey Harbor, Newfoundland; the pilot waslot Bill Stultz and the mechanic/co-pilot Slim Gordon. Relying entirely on instrumentation readings to navigate, a skill few pilots then possessed, they crossed the Atlantic and touched down some 21 hours later at Burry Port, a small town Wales. All three crew members were instant heroes, and after being received by British royalty, they returned home to a ticker tape parade in New York and a White House reception with President Calvin Coolidge.  

Four years later, on May 20, 1932, Amelia flew a single engine plane from Harbor Grace, Newfoundland and, although battling icy winds and mechanical difficulties, she landed in Culmore, 
Ireland in a record setting 14 hours and 56 minutes. The first woman to pilot a plane across the Atlantic Ocean, Earhart was also the first person to have crossed the Atlantic twice by air, and only the second person in history to have flown solo across the Atlantic Ocean. She'd also set the record for the fastest Atlantic crossing, and the longest distance flown by a woman.

It was in 1937 that she attempted to become the first person ever to fly around the world at its longest point:the equator, a challenging trip of 29,000 miles.  She intended for this feat to be the last record-setting flight of her legendary career. Ironically, it was for on  July 2, 1937, she took off from Miami heading east on an around-the-world course. Her plane was specially equipped, and she was accompanied by navigator, Fred Noonan. On July 2 they took off for the most difficult leg of the trip, from New Guinea to the tiny Howland Island in the mid-Pacific. They never arrived, and an extensive land, air and sea search failed to turn up any trace of them. Repeated efforts  to contact the fliers were unsuccessful and they were presumed out of fuel and lost at sea. And to this day, the world's most famous female pilot, her navigator, or their plane has ever been found.

Amelia Earhart was never afraid to break down barriers.  There weren't many female pilots back then, and her actions inspired other women to follow their dreams. This was especially important because there were few career choices available to women at that time. Amelia Earhart has inspired generations of women to do things that had never been done by women before.  Amelia Earhart, we salute you. 


Sweat shops are Alive and Well in the Modern Era

A sweatshop is a work place, often a factory, in which employees, mostly immigrant women, work long hours at low wages under poor conditions, and although sweatshops virtually disappeared after World War II, they have since reappeared and are steadily increasing in number throughout the world. This is due, in large part, to economic globalization. Large corporations have been moving their production facilities out of democratic, industrial nations into impoverished, developing countries in order to take advantage of cheap labor and to avoid scrutiny from governments and human rights organizations. These corporations are concerned only with the production of goods at lowest possible costs in order to maximize their profits, and unfortunately, the exploitation of workers is commonly a consequence of this global "development". 

You may be surprised to learn that these sweatshops are not only restricted to poor and developing nations. In fact,  The US Department of Labor has indicated that 50% of garment factories in the United States violate two or more of the basic labor laws...thus, establishing them as sweatshops. Sadly, we will find these sweatshops existing wherever there is an opportunity to exploit workers who lack the knowledge and resources to stand up for themselves. Of the typical sweatshop employees, at least ninety percent of whom are women...young and uneducated, they are subject to horrible working conditions... many of whom are recent or undocumented immigrants unaware of their legal rights.

These sweatshops violate women's human rights throughout the world. Common abuses include:

  • low wages that fail to meet basic costs of living.
  • substandard and unsafe working and living conditions.
  • long hours of overtime for which employees are not compensated. 
  • sexual harassment. 

In addition to the above, women are often forced into indentured servitude having been lured by recruiters who promise them wonder opportunities in foreign lands; these young women often pay thousands of dollars in recruitment and contract "fees" which tie them  to contractual obligations that can last for years, and because their wages are often only $.10 to $.20 per hour, the women may receive no wages for years as they attempt to pay off these debts. If the women try to return home without fulfilling their contractual obligations, they are often blacklisted, fined, or arrested. 

Even without these debts, many women still do not get paid for sweatshops are notorious for failing to pay their employees on time, if at all. The workers, unaware of their rights, have no choice but to continue to work because sweatshop managers threaten and punish them for insubordination. Many of these factories, as well as the women's living quarters, are crowded, filthy, and rat-infested. They are located behind barbed wire fences that are monitored by armed guards. Not only are the women not allowed to come and go freely, but they are also forbidden to have any visitors. . 

In addition, the women are always under the threat of corporal punishment. The women are verbally abused, spat on, and beaten. They are not allowed to take breaks or go to the bathroom during their shifts, and are fined if they do so. I Female sweatshop employees are forced to endure numerous instances of sexual harassment.

There needs to be full public disclosure. Companies must disclose the treatment and pay of workers and how and where products were made. This disclosure needs to be backed with independent monitoring of working conditions and pay. Violations that are discovered must be corrected in a way that protects workers and their jobs. This includes paying for education for child workers found in factories and paying parents a living wage.

As a consumer, you play a critical role in the system that allows for sweatshops to exist. Without sweatshops many, many people would be unemployed and forced to turn to other income generating activities, possibly prostitution. The goal is not to get rid of the garment industry altogether but rather to drastically improve the conditions these workers must endure. 
As more consumers spend their dollars buying clothing constructed under fair conditions the industry will have to follow the lead and provide clothing that is manufactured through fair means.

The following links will provide you with more information as well as things you can do to help stop this.


The Triangle Waist Company Fire

There were 275 women and young girls who were looking forward to an evening at home with their families as started to pack up their belongings to leave work at 4:45 PM on that fateful Saturday afternoon in 1911. They never made it there for within twenty minutes time, many of their charred bodies were lined up along the East Side of Greene Street in New York City. These women who flung themselves from the ninth floor to escape the flames were merely covered with tarpaulins in the spot where they had hit the concrete. That Saturday evening, the  Bellevue morgue was overrun with bodies and a makeshift morgue was set up on the adjoining pier on the East River. Hundred's of parents and family members came to identify their lost loved ones. In total, 146 employees (mostly women) of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company were dead that night of March 25, 1911. The horror of their deaths led to numerous changes in occupational safety standards that currently ensure the safety of workers today. 

Back inside, on the 8th floor, feeding on cotton fabric and then climbing to the hanging overhead garments, the fire took little time to race out of control. The foreman and male tailors tried desperately to douse the licking flames with the 27 water buckets that were available. The efforts proved to be futile and the 275 girls panicked in desperation and headed for the two passenger elevators and the stairway at the west end of the loft. The crush of women at the door leading to the stairway slammed it closed. The doors in this building opened in rather than out.

The fire at  the Triangle Waist Company in New York City, which claimed the lives of these 146 young immigrant workers, is one of the worst disasters since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. This incident has had great significance in thatthis  it highlights the inhumane working conditions to which industrial workers can be subjected. To many, its horrors epitomize the extremes of the industrial society, and the tragedy still dwells in the collective memory of the nation.  The victims of the tragedy are still celebrated as martyrs at the hands of industrial greed.

The Triangle Waist Company was, in many ways, your typical sweatshop; it in the heart of Manhattan, at 23-29 Washington Place, at the northern corner of Washington Square East. Low wages, excessively long hours, and unsanitary and dangerous working conditions were the hallmarks of of these sweatshops.

The company's owners had fled to the building's roof when the fire began and survived. They were later put on trial, at which the counsel for the defendants, managed to destroy the credibility of one of the survivors, Kate Alterman who had been asked to repeat her story several times. The attorney argued to the jury that Alterman and probably other witnesses had memorized their statements and might even have been told what to say by the prosecutors. The defense also stressed that the prosecution had failed to prove that the owners knew the exit doors were locked at the time in question. 

The jury acquitted the owners. However, they lost a subsequent civil suit in 1913 and plaintiffs won compensation in the amount of $75 per deceased victim. The insurance company paid Blanck and Harris about $60,000 more than the reported losses, or about $400 per casualty. 

The building where 146 died still stands now and is part of the New York University. Today, students look out the windows where so many leaped to their deaths.